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density bottle

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A density bottle is a bottle of known volume that can be weighed empty and then weighed with the liquid whose density you want to determine. Density Bottle is used in determining the particle density  (i.e. Specific Gravity) of sand, fine aggregate & filler.
Standards: BS 1377-2, ASTM D 854

So density = mass/volume and you use that to determine density

A specific gravity test is used to determine unit weight relative to water weight. Showing the comparative weight of soil and water. It is the ratio of the mass of soil to the equivalent volume of a mass of a standard liquid. Distilled water is used as a standard fluid in geotechnics. Provides information on the suitability of soil as a building material; the higher specific gravity value provides high strength. There are several ways to get specific gravity.

Why is the Density Bottle Test done?

The density bottle test is done because this content describes the density bottle method. The density bottle method is commonly used on fine-grained soil that is sieved through a 425 µ sieve. Based on specific gravity, engineers can define many structural properties. The specific gravity of soils to determine the degree of saturation and unit weight of wet soils. Unit weights are needed for load-bearing, settlement, and stability problems in foundation soil engineering.

Purpose of density bottle test / density bottle experiment

The accuracy of determining density is determined by the combined accuracy of measuring the volume and weight of a given amount of substance. When measuring the relative density of liquids, two common methods of measuring volume are a graduated cylinder and a density bottle. Of these two methods, the density bottle provides a more accurate volume measurement, resulting in a more accurate determination of density or specific gravity.

Density bottle method for specific gravity

For solids, specific gravity is an important parameter. If we consider a soil mixture, different particles in that mixture have different specific gravity values. The specific gravity of the entire mixture is the average density of all solid particles present in this mixture. For most soils, the specific gravity is between 2.65 and 2.80. It has no units.

The specific gravity of solid particles is the ratio of the density of solids to that of water.

How to use density bottle

Follow the steps to learn how to use a density bottle

  1. Find out the weight of the empty dry-density bottle.
  2. Fill up the density bottle with liquid and avoid bubbles. The cut should be about 1/3 covered.
  3. In the thermostatic bath, adjust the temperature of the bottle and its contents to 20°C.
  4. Align the cap on the density bottle or thermometer with the mark and carefully insert. The capillary tube fills and the displaced liquid escapes.
  5. Gently dry the outside of the cap (or side capillary) and density bottle with a paper towel.
  6. Determine the weight of the full-density bottle.

Calculate the mass (weight) and volume density of the liquid at the reference temperature of 20°C. The volume is engraved on the bottle. Use the following equation:

Density (ρ) = mass (m)/volume (V)

When weighing, take into account the buoyancy of the air.

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